PAN Pesticides Database - Chemicals

Limonene - Identification, toxicity, use, water pollution potential, ecological toxicity and regulatory information

Note: See Working with the Information on this Page section below for important notes about this data.

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Identifying information, including synonyms, ID numbers, use type, chemical classification, a link to a list of all products containing this chemical and a list of the top crops this pesticide is used on in California.
Signs and symptoms of poisoning, first aid, and links to treatment information for this chemical.
Link to information on toxicity to humans, including carcinogenicity, reproductive and developmental toxicity, neurotoxicity, and acute toxicity.
Links to world-wide registration status as well as regulatory information for the U.S. and California.
Water quality standards and physical properties affecting water contamination potential.
Toxicity to aquatic organisms.
List of chemicals in the same family, including breakdown products, salts, esters, isomers, and other derivatives.
 

Chemical Identification and Use for Limonene

Basic Identification Information About This Chemical
Chemical Name: Limonene
CAS Number: 138-86-3 (DL-Limonene)
5989-27-5 (D-Limonene)
U.S. EPA PC Code: 079701 (Two EPA PC Codes for the same chemical)
179701 (Two EPA PC Codes for the same chemical)
879701
CA DPR Chem Code: 979 (Limonene. Two chem codes for the same compound.)
2531 (Limonene. Two chem codes for the same compound.)
Molecular Weight: 136.24
Molecular Structure:
Use Type: Dog and Cat Repellent , Insect Repellent , Insecticide
Chem Class: Botanical , Oil - essential
View Related Chemicals
 
Additional Resources About This Chemical Class and Use Type
Historical Use of this Chemical
Top five crops and sites for this pesticide in California
Structural Pest Control   Pomegranates   Grapefruit   Almonds   Walnuts  
View All Crops and Sites
 
Other Names for this Chemical
About Chemical Synonyms
(US EPA PC Code (Two EPA PC Codes for the same chemical)) , (US EPA PC Code (Two EPA PC Codes for the same chemical)) , (US EPA PC Code (Two EPA PC Codes for the same chemical)) , (4R)-1-Methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)cyclohexene , .alpha.-Limonene , .delta.-1,8-Terpodiene , 079701 (US EPA PC Code Text (Two EPA PC Codes for the same chemical)) , 1,8(9)-p-Menthadiene , 1-Methyl-4-(1-methyletheny)cyclohexene , 1-Methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)cyclohexene , 1-Methyl-4-isopropenyl-1-cyclohexene , 1-Methyl-4-isopropenylcyclohexene , 138-86-3 (CAS number) , 138863 , 138863 (CAS number without hyphens) , 179701 (US EPA PC Code Text (Two EPA PC Codes for the same chemical)) , 2531 (CA DPR Chem Code) (Limonene. Two chem codes for the same compound.)) , 4-Isopropenyl-1-methyl-1-cyclohexene , 5989-27-5 (CAS number) , 5989275 (CAS number without hyphens) , 879701 (US EPA PC Code Text (Two EPA PC Codes for the same chemical)) , 979 (CA DPR Chem Code) (Limonene. Two chem codes for the same compound.)) , Acintene dp dipentene , Cajeputene , Cinen , Commercial dipentene , Cyclil Decene , Cyclohexene, 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)- , Cyclohexene, 4-isopropenyl-1-methyl- , d-Limonene , Dipenten , Dipentene , Dipenteno , DL-p-Mentha-1.8-diene , Eulimen , Kautschin , Limonen , Limonene , LIMONENE (CC=00979) (CA DPR Chem Code Text (Limonene. Two chem codes for the same compound.)) , LIMONENE (CA DPR Chem Code Text (Limonene. Two chem codes for the same compound.)) , Limonene (cc=00979) , Monocyclic terpene hydrocarbons , Nesol , p-Mentha-1,8-diene , p-Mentha-1,8-diene, dl
 
Products Containing This Chemical
Current and historic U.S. registered products
View U.S. Products All Products Currently Registered Products
 

Signs and Symptoms of Limonene Poisoning

NOTE! There may be other diseases and chemicals that have similar symptoms.

If you have a poisoning emergency in the United States call 1-800-222-1222.
If the victim has collapsed or is unconscious, call 911.

Symptoms of Limonene Exposure from the International Chemical Safety Cards (ICSC)

Report a Poisoning

View full ICSC Cards: English   Español   Française   Chinese   Dutch   Finnish   German   Hungarian   Japanese   Swahili   Thai   Urdu  
NOTE! STRICT HYGIENE!

Route of Exposure

Symptoms

First Aid

Inhalation Fresh air rest.
Skin Redness. Remove contaminated clothes. Rinse and then wash skin with water and soap.
Eyes Redness. First rinse with plenty of water for several minutes (remove contact lenses if easily possible) then take to a doctor.
Ingestion Rinse mouth.
Notes for ICSC Information
 

Toxicity Information for Limonene

  Note: Information for many chemicals is incomplete and may not be fully representative of effects on humans. Why?

Summary Toxicity Information

PAN Bad Actor
Chemical
1
Acute
Toxicity
2
Carcinogen Cholinesterase
Inhibitor
Ground
Water Contaminant
Developmental or
Reproductive Toxin
Endocrine
Disruptor
Not Listed Slight Unclassifiable No
 
Indicates high toxicity in the given toxicological category. Indicates no available weight-of-the-evidence summary assessment. For additional information on toxicity from scientific journals or registration documents, see the "Additional Resources for Toxicity " section of the chemical detail page.
1. PAN Bad Actors are chemicals that are one or more of the following: highly acutely toxic, cholinesterase inhibitor, known/probable carcinogen, known groundwater pollutant or known reproductive or developmental toxicant. NOTE! Because there are no authoritative lists of Endocrine Disrupting (ED) chemicals, EDs are not yet considered PAN Bad Actor chemicals.
2. The acute toxicity reported on this page is of the pure chemical ingredient only and may not reflect the acute toxicity of individual pesticide products. To view acute toxicity of individual products, click on 'View Products' link in the 'Chemical Identification' section above.

Detailed Toxicity Information

Acute Toxicity 2
Limonene
WHO Acute Hazard
TRI Acute Hazard
Material Safety Data Sheets
Acute rating from U.S. EPA product label
U.S. NTP Acute Toxicity Studies
      View Studies
Cholinesterase Inhibitor
Not Listed
Not Listed
Not Available
Slightly Toxic
Not Acutely Toxic to Slightly Toxic

No
2. The acute toxicity reported on this page is of the pure chemical ingredient only and may not reflect the acute toxicity of individual pesticide products. To view acute toxicity of individual products, click on 'View Products' link in the 'Chemical Identification' section above.
 
Cancer Information
Limonene
IARC Carcinogens
U.S. NTP Carcinogens
California Prop 65 Known Carcinogens
U.S. EPA Carcinogens
TRI Carcinogen
3, Unclassifiable
Not Listed
Not Listed
Unclassifiable, no reason given
Not Listed
 
Endocrine Disruption
Limonene
Illinois EPA list
Keith list
Colborn list
Benbrook list
Danish Inert list
EU list
Not Listed
Not Listed
Not Listed
Not Listed
Not Listed
Not Listed
 
Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity
Limonene
CA Prop 65 Developmental Toxin
U.S. TRI Developmental Toxin
CA Prop 65 Female Reproductive Toxin
CA Prop 65 Male Reproductive Toxin
U.S. TRI Reproductive Toxin
Not Listed
Not Listed
Not Listed
Not Listed
Not Listed
 
Chemicals of Special Concern
Limonene
PAN Bad Actors
PAN Dirty Dozen list
Not Listed
Not Listed
 

Water Pollution Potential and Criteria for Limonene

Water Pollution Potential

PAN Ground Water Contaminant Rating Insufficient Data
 

Sorry, no water quality standards or criteria have been established for this chemical by the U.S. or Canadian governments; however, there may be criteria established for related chemicals.

 

Regulatory Information for Limonene

International Regulatory Status

 
UNEP Persistent Organic Pollutant (POP)
UNEP Prior Informed Consent Chemical (PIC)
WHO Obsolete Pesticide
Not Listed
Not Listed
Not Listed
 

U.S. and California Regulatory Status

U.S. EPA Registered
U.S. EPA Hazardous Air Pollutant
U.S. EPA Minimum Risk Pesticide (25b list)

CA Registered
CA Groundwater Contaminant
CA Toxic Air Contaminant
Yes
Not Listed
No

Yes
Not Listed
Not Listed
 

Maximum Tolerance and Residue Levels

Codex Alimentarius
   (UN FAO Maximum Residue Limits)
U.S. Maximum Tolerance Levels
European Union Maximum Residue Levels
Go to web site

Go to web site

Go to web site
 

Ecotoxicity for Limonene

Note! Information for many chemicals is incomplete and may not be fully representative of effects on the environment. Why? Click on underlined terms for definitions and additional information.

Aquatic Ecotoxicity

All Toxic Effects for Organism Group
Organism Group Effects Noted
Fish Behavior, Mortality
Fish Behavior, Mortality
Fungi Mortality, Population
Insects Mortality
Insects Mortality
Molluscs Enzyme(s), Mortality
Zooplankton Intoxication, Mortality
Zooplankton Intoxication, Mortality
View All Aquatic Ecotoxicity Studies and References
 
Summary of Acute Toxicity for Organism Group
Organism Group Average Acute Toxicity Acute Toxicity Range
Fish Not Acutely Toxic Not Acutely Toxic to Slightly Toxic
Insects Slightly Toxic Slight Toxicity
Molluscs Moderately Toxic Moderate Toxicity
Zooplankton Very Highly Toxic Very Highly Toxic
Fish Slightly Toxic Slight to High Toxicity
Insects Slightly Toxic Slight Toxicity
Zooplankton Highly Toxic Highly Toxic
View All Acute Summaries
 

Terrestrial Ecotoxicity

Summary of Acute Toxicity for Organism Group

Sorry, no honeybee acute toxicity data available for this chemical. Try related chemicals.

Note: Population-level effects on honeybees may occur even if a pesticide has low acute toxicity. For example, certain pesticides interfere with honeybee reproduction, ability to navigate, or temperature regulation, any of which can have an effect on long-term survival of honeybee colonies. The neonicotinoids, pyrethroids and keto-enol pesticides are some types of pesticides causing one or more of these effects.
Honeybee Chronic Toxicity

Sorry, no honeybee chronic toxicity data available for this chemical. Try related chemicals.

Related Chemicals for Limonene

CAS Number Relation Reason Chemical Name Chem Detail Symptoms California Use Chem Use Type U.S. EPA Reg PAN Bad Actor
138-86-3, 5989-27-5 Parent P Limonene View View View Insect Repellent, Insecticide, Dog and Cat Repellent Yes Not Listed
99-86-5 Related 11 alpha-Terpinene View View View No Not Listed
Related 13 alpha-Terpinene, mixture with p-Cymene, and d-Limonene View View View No Not Listed
96-08-2 Related 2 LImonene dioxide View View View Solvent No Not Listed
 
Working with the Information on this Page

Click on underlined terms for definitions or go to the Pesticide Tutorial overview page.

Any underlined term with a book icon has additional information.

* Data marked with an asterisk indicates that this chemical is not explicitly listed on the corresponding list. Instead, it belongs to a group of chemicals that IS designated on the list. For example, if an agency assigns a classification of reproductive toxicant to "mercury compounds", that classification is applied to all mercury compounds in the PAN Pesticide database, which are then marked with an asterisk.

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