PAN Pesticides Database - Chemicals

Paraquat dichloride - Identification, toxicity, use, water pollution potential, ecological toxicity and regulatory information

Note: See Working with the Information on this Page section below for important notes about this data.

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Identifying information, including synonyms, ID numbers, use type, chemical classification, a link to a list of all products containing this chemical and a list of the top crops this pesticide is used on in California.
Signs and symptoms of poisoning, first aid, and links to treatment information for this chemical.
Link to information on toxicity to humans, including carcinogenicity, reproductive and developmental toxicity, neurotoxicity, and acute toxicity.
Links to world-wide registration status as well as regulatory information for the U.S. and California.
Water quality standards and physical properties affecting water contamination potential.
Toxicity to aquatic organisms.
List of chemicals in the same family, including breakdown products, salts, esters, isomers, and other derivatives.
 

Chemical Identification and Use for Paraquat dichloride

Basic Identification Information About This Chemical
Chemical Name: Paraquat dichloride
CAS Number: 1910-42-5
U.S. EPA PC Code: 061601
CA DPR Chem Code: 1601
Molecular Weight: 257.2
Molecular Structure:
Use Type: Herbicide
Chem Class: Bipyridylium
View Related Chemicals
 
Additional Resources About This Chemical Class and Use Type
Historical Use of this Chemical
Top five crops and sites for this pesticide in California
Almonds   Cotton   Alfalfa for Forage   Wine Grapes   Table and Raisin Grapes  
View All Crops and Sites
 
Other Names for this Chemical
About Chemical Synonyms
061601 (US EPA PC Code Text ) , 1,1'-Dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium dichloride , 1,1'-Dimethyl-4,4'-dipyridylium dichloride , 1601 (CA DPR Chem Code) ) , 1910-42-5 (CAS number) , 1910425 , 1910425 (CAS number without hyphens) , 4,4'-Bipyridinium, 1,1'-dimethyl-, dichloride , Crisquat , Cyclone Herbicide , Dextrone X , Dexuron , Dichloride salt of paraquat , Dicloreto De Paraquate , DicloretoDeParaquate , Esgram , Gramixel , Gramonol , Gramoxone , Gramoxone dichloride , Gramoxone S , Gramoxone W , Gramuron , Methyl viologen dichloride , N,N'-Dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium dichloride , N,N'-Dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridylium dichloride , Ortho Paraquat CL , Para-Col , Paraquat , Paraquat (ANSI) , Paraquat dichloride , PARAQUAT DICHLORIDE (CA DPR Chem Code Text ) , Paraquat-dichloride , Paraquatdichloride , Paraquate , Paraquato , Pathclear , Pillarxone , Terraklene, component of (with 080807) , Terraklene, component of (with 080807) , Totacol , Toxer Total , Viologen, methyl- , Weedol (Use 2 code nos. 061601 and 032201) , Weedol (Use 2 code nos. 061601 and 032201) , Weedol (Use 2 EPA PC code nos. 061601 and 032201) , Yes (US EPA PC Code )
 
Products Containing This Chemical
Current and historic U.S. registered products
View U.S. Products All Products Currently Registered Products
 

Signs and Symptoms of Paraquat dichloride Poisoning

NOTE! There may be other diseases and chemicals that have similar symptoms.

If you have a poisoning emergency in the United States call 1-800-222-1222.
If the victim has collapsed or is unconscious, call 911.

Paraquat dichloride is a Bipyridylium compound.

Report a Poisoning

Symptoms of Poisoning with Bipyridylium Compounds
Find Products Containing this Chemical

- Paraquat & Diquat: (Ingestion) - burning pain in the mouth, throat, chest, upper abdomen; pulmonary edema, pancreatitis, renal damage, CNS effects.
- Paraquat (dermal): dry and fissured hands, horizontal ridging or loss of fingernails, ulceration and abrasion. Diarrhea, sometimes bloody, can occur. Central Nervous System effects include giddiness, headache, fever, myalgia, lethargy and coma. Pulmonay fibrosis is the usual cause of death.
- Diquat: neurologic toxicity (nervousness, irritability, restlessness, combativeness, disorientation, nonsensical statements, inability to recognize friends or family members, diminished reflexes). Intense nausea, vomiting and diarrhea may occur.

Source for Group Symptoms: Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisoning, 5th edition, U.S. EPA, Chapter 12.

Treatment for Bipyridylium Poisoning

See: Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisoning, 5th edition, U.S. EPA, Chapter 12, page 113.

 
Symptoms of Paraquat dichloride Exposure from the International Chemical Safety Cards (ICSC)

Report a Poisoning

View full ICSC Cards: English   Español   Française   Chinese   Dutch   Finnish   German   Hungarian   Japanese   Swahili   Thai   Urdu  
NOTE! PREVENT DISPERSION OF DUST! STRICT HYGIENE!
General First Aid: IN ALL CASES CONSULT A DOCTOR!

Route of Exposure

Symptoms

First Aid

Inhalation Cough. Headache. Laboured breathing. Sore throat. Fresh air rest. Half-upright position. Refer for medical attention.
Skin MAY BE ABSORBED! Redness. Remove contaminated clothes. Rinse and then wash skin with water and soap. Refer for medical attention.
Eyes Redness. Pain. First rinse with plenty of water for several minutes (remove contact lenses if easily possible) then take to a doctor.
Ingestion Abdominal pain. Diarrhoea. Nausea. Sore throat. Vomiting. (See Notes). Rinse mouth. or bentonite clay in water or give a slurry of activated charcoal in water to drink. Induce vomiting (ONLY IN CONSCIOUS PERSONS!). Give plenty of water to drink Refer for medical attention.
Notes for ICSC Information
The toxicological information is the same for paraquat (CAS 4685-14-7). Depending on the degree of exposure periodic medical examination is indicated. The symptoms of lung oedema often do not become manifest until a few hours have passed and they are aggravated by physical effort. Rest and medical observation are therefore essential. The symptoms of lung fibrosis (shortness of breath laboured breathing) do not become manifest until several days. If the substance is formulated with solvents also consult the ICSCs of these materials. Carrier solvents used in commercial formulations may change physical and toxicological properties. Do NOT take working clothes home.
Symptoms of Paraquat dichloride Exposure from Other Sources

- Burning pain in mouth, throat, chest, and upper abdomen.
- Diarrhea, giddiness, headache, fever, myalgia, lethargy, and coma.
- Pulmonary edema, pancreatitis, renal injury, acute tubular necrosis.
- Dry and fissured hands, horizontal ridging or loss of fingernails, ulceration and abrasion.

Source for Symptoms: Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisoning, 5th edition, U.S. EPA, Chapter 12. March 1999. (EPA R&M)

First Aid for Paraquat dichloride Poisoning

For Inhalation
- Move victims to fresh air. Emergency personnel should avoid self-exposure to paraquat.
- Evaluate vital signs including pulse and respiratory rate, and note any trauma. If no pulse is detected, provide CPR. If not breathing, provide artificial respiration. If breathing is labored, administer oxygen or other respiratory support.
- Obtain authorization and/or further instructions from the local hospital for performance of other invasive procedures.
- RUSH to a health care facility.
For Skin and Eyes
- Remove victims from exposure. Emergency personnel should avoid self- exposure to paraquat.
- Evaluate vital signs including pulse and respiratory rate, and note any trauma. If no pulse is detected, provide CPR. If not breathing, provide artificial respiration. If breathing is labored, administer oxygen or other respiratory support.
- Remove contaminated clothing as soon as possible.
- If eye exposure has occurred, eyes must be flushed with lukewarm water for at least 15 minutes. 5. Wash exposed skin areas three times with soap and water.
- Obtain authorization and/or further instructions from the local hospital for performance of other invasive procedures.
- RUSH to a health care facility.
For Ingestion
- Evaluate vital signs including pulse and respiratory rate, and note any trauma. If no pulse is detected, provide CPR. If not breathing, provide artificial respiration. If breathing is labored, administer oxygen or other respiratory support.
- Obtain authorization and/or further instructions from the local hospital for performance of other invasive procedures.
- Vomiting may be induced with syrup of Ipecac. If elapsed time since ingestion of paraquat is unknown or suspected to be greater than 30 minutes, do not induce vomiting and proceed to Step 4. Ipecac should not be administered to children under 6 months of age. Warning: Syrup of Ipecac should be administered only if victims are alert, have an active gag-reflex, and show no signs of impending seizure or coma. If ANY uncertainty exists, proceed to Step 4. The following dosages of Ipecac are recommended: children up to 1 year old, 10 mL (1/3 oz); children 1 to 12 years old, 15 mL (1/2 oz); adults, 30 mL (1 oz). Ambulate (walk) the victims and give large quantities of water. If vomiting has not occurred after 15 minutes, Ipecac may be readministered. Continue to ambulate and give water to the victims. If vomiting has not occurred within 15 minutes after second administration of Ipecac, administer activated charcoal.
- (Step 4) Activated charcoal may be administered if victims are conscious and alert. Use 15 to 30 g (1/2 to 1 oz) for children, 50 to 100 g (1-3/4 to 3-1/2 oz) for adults, with 125 to 250 mL (1/2 to 1 cup) of water.
- Promote excretion by administering a saline cathartic or sorbitol to conscious and alert victims. Children require 15 to 30 g (1/2 to 1 oz) of cathartic; 50 to 100 g (1-3/4 to 3-1/2 oz) is recommended for adults.
- RUSH to a health care facility.

Source for First Aid: Emergency First Aid Treatment Guide, U.S. Enviromental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. July 2003. (US EPA Other)

Treatment for Paraquat dichloride Poisoning

See: Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisoning, 5th edition, U.S. EPA (EPA R&M)

 
 

Toxicity Information for Paraquat dichloride

  Note: Information for many chemicals is incomplete and may not be fully representative of effects on humans. Why?

Summary Toxicity Information

PAN Bad Actor
Chemical
1
Acute
Toxicity
2
Carcinogen Cholinesterase
Inhibitor
Ground
Water Contaminant
Developmental or
Reproductive Toxin
Endocrine
Disruptor
Not Likely No Potential
Suspected
 
Indicates high toxicity in the given toxicological category. Indicates no available weight-of-the-evidence summary assessment. For additional information on toxicity from scientific journals or registration documents, see the "Additional Resources for Toxicity " section of the chemical detail page.
1. PAN Bad Actors are chemicals that are one or more of the following: highly acutely toxic, cholinesterase inhibitor, known/probable carcinogen, known groundwater pollutant or known reproductive or developmental toxicant. NOTE! Because there are no authoritative lists of Endocrine Disrupting (ED) chemicals, EDs are not yet considered PAN Bad Actor chemicals.
2. The acute toxicity reported on this page is of the pure chemical ingredient only and may not reflect the acute toxicity of individual pesticide products. To view acute toxicity of individual products, click on 'View Products' link in the 'Chemical Identification' section above.

Detailed Toxicity Information

Acute Toxicity 2
Paraquat dichloride
WHO Acute Hazard
TRI Acute Hazard
Material Safety Data Sheets
Acute rating from U.S. EPA product label
U.S. NTP Acute Toxicity Studies
      View Studies
Cholinesterase Inhibitor
II, Moderately Hazardous
Not Listed
Highly Toxic
No Consensus Value
Moderately to Highly Toxic

No
2. The acute toxicity reported on this page is of the pure chemical ingredient only and may not reflect the acute toxicity of individual pesticide products. To view acute toxicity of individual products, click on 'View Products' link in the 'Chemical Identification' section above.
 
Cancer Information
Paraquat dichloride
IARC Carcinogens
U.S. NTP Carcinogens
California Prop 65 Known Carcinogens
U.S. EPA Carcinogens
TRI Carcinogen
Not Listed
Not Listed
Not Listed
E, Unlikely
Not Listed
 
Endocrine Disruption
Paraquat dichloride
Illinois EPA list
Keith list
Colborn list
Benbrook list
Danish Inert list
EU list
Not listed
Not listed
Not listed
Not listed
Not listed
Yes
 
Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity
Paraquat dichloride
CA Prop 65 Developmental Toxin
U.S. TRI Developmental Toxin
CA Prop 65 Female Reproductive Toxin
CA Prop 65 Male Reproductive Toxin
U.S. TRI Reproductive Toxin
Not Listed
Not Listed
Not Listed
Not Listed
Not Listed
 
Chemicals of Special Concern
Paraquat dichloride
PAN Bad Actors
PAN Dirty Dozen list
Yes
Yes
 

Water Pollution Potential and Criteria for Paraquat dichloride

Water Pollution Potential

PAN Ground Water Contaminant Rating Potential
 
Physical Property Data Related to Water Contamination Potential
Water Solubility (Avg, mg/L)
Adsorption Coefficient (Koc)
Hydrolysis Half-life (Avg, Days)
Aerobic Soil Half-life (Avg, Days)
Anaerobic Soil Half-life (Avg, Days)
626,000
-
30.0
620.0
644.0
 
 

Water Standards and Criteria

U.S. National Drinking Water Standards and Health Criteria
g/L unless noted  
Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) 0  
Maximum Contaminant Level Goal (MCLG)  
One Day Exposure Health Advisory Level 100.0  
Ten Day Exposure Health Advisory Level 100.0  
Lifetime Exposure Health Advisory Level 30.0  
Reference Dose 4.50 (g/kg/day)  
U.S. Drinking Water Equivalent Level 200.0  
Concentration with Lifetime Cancer Risk of 1 in 10,000  
 

Regulatory Information for Paraquat dichloride

International Regulatory Status

 
UNEP Persistent Organic Pollutant (POP)
UNEP Prior Informed Consent Chemical (PIC)
WHO Obsolete Pesticide


Not Listed
 

U.S. and California Regulatory Status

U.S. EPA Registered
U.S. EPA Hazardous Air Pollutant
U.S. EPA Minimum Risk Pesticide (25b list)

CA Registered
CA Groundwater Contaminant
CA Toxic Air Contaminant
Yes
Not Listed
No

Yes
Not Listed
In Evaluation
 

Maximum Tolerance and Residue Levels

Codex Alimentarius
   (UN FAO Maximum Residue Limits)
U.S. Maximum Tolerance Levels
European Union Maximum Residue Levels
Go to web site

Go to web site

Go to web site
 

Ecotoxicity for Paraquat dichloride

Note! Information for many chemicals is incomplete and may not be fully representative of effects on the environment. Why? Click on underlined terms for definitions and additional information.

Aquatic Ecotoxicity

All Toxic Effects for Organism Group
Organism Group Effects Noted
Amphibians Cell(s), Development, Growth, Histology, Mortality
Annelida Biochemistry, Enzyme(s), Mortality
AquaticPlants Accumulation, Biochemistry, Growth, Injury, Mortality, Physiology, Population, Reproduction
Crustaceans Mortality
Fish Accumulation, Behavior, Biochemistry, Cell(s), Enzyme(s), Genetics, Growth, Histology, Intoxication, Morphology, Mortality, No Effect Coded, Physiology, Reproduction
Fungi Development, Population, Reproduction
Insects Biochemistry, Genetics, Growth, Mortality
Molluscs Behavior, Biochemistry, Enzyme(s), Mortality, Physiology
NematodesandFlatworms Mortality
Phytoplankton Accumulation, Biochemistry, Cell(s), Enzyme(s), Genetics, Growth, Mortality, Physiology, Population, Reproduction
TerrestrialPlants Population
Zooplankton Biochemistry, Enzyme(s), Intoxication, Mortality, Population, Reproduction
~ Un-Assigned Accumulation, Growth, Mortality, Physiology, Population
View All Aquatic Ecotoxicity Studies and References
 
Summary of Acute Toxicity for Organism Group
Organism Group Average Acute Toxicity Acute Toxicity Range
Amphibians Slightly Toxic Slight to Moderate Toxicity
Fish Slightly Toxic Not Acutely Toxic to Moderate Toxicity
Insects Not Acutely Toxic Not Acutely Toxic
Molluscs Not Acutely Toxic Not Acutely Toxic
Phytoplankton Moderately Toxic Moderate Toxicity
Zooplankton Slightly Toxic Slight to Very High Toxicity
~ Un-Assigned Slightly Toxic Not Acutely Toxic to Very High Toxicity
View All Acute Summaries
 

Terrestrial Ecotoxicity

Summary of Acute Toxicity for Organism Group
Organism Group Average Acute Toxicity Acute Toxicity Range
HoneybeesSlightly ToxicNot AcutelyT to Moderately Toxic
Note: Population-level effects on honeybees may occur even if a pesticide has low acute toxicity. For example, certain pesticides interfere with honeybee reproduction, ability to navigate, or temperature regulation, any of which can have an effect on long-term survival of honeybee colonies. The neonicotinoids, pyrethroids and keto-enol pesticides are some types of pesticides causing one or more of these effects.
Honeybee Chronic Toxicity

Sorry, no honeybee chronic toxicity data available for this chemical. Try related chemicals.

Related Chemicals for Paraquat dichloride

CAS Number Relation Reason Chemical Name Chem Detail Symptoms California Use Chem Use Type U.S. EPA Reg PAN Bad Actor
1910-42-5 Parent P Paraquat dichloride View View View Herbicide Yes Yes
69312-67-0 Related 13 Monolinuron with paraquat dichloride View View View Herbicide No Yes
2074-50-2 Related 1 Paraquat bis(methylsulfate) View View View Herbicide No Yes
27041-84-5 Related 1 Paraquat bistribromide View View View Herbicide No Yes
4685-14-7 Related P Paraquat ion View View View No Not Listed
39312-80-6 Related 13 Terraklene (simazine-paraquat mixture) View View View Herbicide No Not Listed
 
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