PAN Pesticides Database - Chemicals

Phosphine - Identification, toxicity, use, water pollution potential, ecological toxicity and regulatory information

Note: See Working with the Information on this Page section below for important notes about this data.

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Identifying information, including synonyms, ID numbers, use type, chemical classification, a link to a list of all products containing this chemical and a list of the top crops this pesticide is used on in California.
Signs and symptoms of poisoning, first aid, and links to treatment information for this chemical.
Link to information on toxicity to humans, including carcinogenicity, reproductive and developmental toxicity, neurotoxicity, and acute toxicity.
Links to world-wide registration status as well as regulatory information for the U.S. and California.
Water quality standards and physical properties affecting water contamination potential.
Toxicity to aquatic organisms.
List of chemicals in the same family, including breakdown products, salts, esters, isomers, and other derivatives.
 

Chemical Identification and Use for Phosphine

Basic Identification Information About This Chemical
Chemical Name: Phosphine
CAS Number: 7803-51-2
U.S. EPA PC Code: 066500
CA DPR Chem Code: 3541
Molecular Weight: 34.03
Molecular Structure:
Use Type: Fumigant , Insecticide
Chem Class: Inorganic
View Related Chemicals
 
Additional Resources About This Chemical Class and Use Type
Historical Use of this Chemical
Top five crops and sites for this pesticide in California
Regulatory   Other Fumigation   Commodity Fumigation   Structural Pest Control   Almonds  
View All Crops and Sites
 
Other Names for this Chemical
About Chemical Synonyms
(US EPA PC Code ) , 066500 (US EPA PC Code Text ) , 3541 (CA DPR Chem Code) ) , 7803-51-2 (CAS number) , 7803512 , 7803512 (CAS number without hyphens) , Aluminum phosphide breakdown product , Begasungsmittel (PH 3 (wirksamer Bestandteil)) , Calcium phosphide breakdown product , Detia Gas Ex-B , Fosfina , Fosforbrinte , Gas EX-B , Hydrogen phosphide , Magnesium phosphide breakdown product , Phosphan (Phosphorwasserstoff) , Phosphine , Phosphine (37KB) , PHOSPHINE (CA DPR Chem Code Text ) , Phosphine gas , Phosphorus trihydride , Phosphorwasserstoff , phosphure d'hydrogene , Zinc phosphide breakdown product
 
Products Containing This Chemical
Current and historic U.S. registered products
View U.S. Products All Products Currently Registered Products
 

Signs and Symptoms of Phosphine Poisoning

NOTE! There may be other diseases and chemicals that have similar symptoms.

If you have a poisoning emergency in the United States call 1-800-222-1222.
If the victim has collapsed or is unconscious, call 911.

Phosphine is a Phosphine compound.

Report a Poisoning

Symptoms of Poisoning with Phosphine Compounds
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- Burning of the skin and eyes.
- Headache, cough, tightness and pain in the chest, shortness of breath, dizziness, lethargy, and stupor.
- Fatigue, muscle pain, chills, tremors, incoordination, seizures, and coma may be seen.
- Pulmonary edema and cardiac arrhythmias are common.
- Gastrointestinal symptoms include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea.
- Renal (kidney) damage, hepatic (liver) damage, and jaundice may also occur.
- Effects may be delayed for several hours.

Source for Group Symptoms: Emergency First Aid Treatment Guide, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. July 2003.

Treatment for Phosphine Poisoning

See: Emergency First Aid Treatment Guide, U.S. Enviromental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. July 2003.

 
Symptoms of Phosphine Exposure from the International Chemical Safety Cards (ICSC)

Report a Poisoning

View full ICSC Cards: English   Español   Française   Chinese   Dutch   Finnish   German   Hungarian   Japanese   Swahili   Thai   Urdu  
NOTE! STRICT HYGIENE!
General First Aid: IN ALL CASES CONSULT A DOCTOR!

Route of Exposure

Symptoms

First Aid

Inhalation Ataxia. Abdominal pain. Burning sensation. Convulsions. Cough. Diarrhoea. Dizziness. Dullness. Headache. Nausea. Shortness of breath. Vomiting. Pain and tightness in the chest. Tremors. Fresh air rest. Half-upright position. Artificial respiration if indicated. Refer for medical attention.
Skin ON CONTACT WITH LIQUID: FROSTBITE. ON FROSTBITE: rinse with plenty of water do NOT remove clothes. Refer for medical attention.
Eyes First rinse with plenty of water for several minutes (remove contact lenses if easily possible) then take to a doctor.
Ingestion
Notes for ICSC Information
The technical product often ignites spontaneously at room temperature because of the presence of other phosphorus hydrides (especially P_2H_4) as impurities. Odourless when pure at concentrations up to 200 ppm a highly toxic level. Technical product has a garlic-like odour due to impurities. The symptoms of lung oedema often do not become manifest until a few hours have passed and they are aggravated by physical effort. Rest and medical observation is therefore essential. Immediate administration of an appropriate spray by a doctor or a person authorized by him/her should be considered. The odour warning when the exposure limit value is exceeded is insufficient. Turn leaking cylinder with the leak up to prevent escape of gas in liquid state.
Symptoms of Phosphine Exposure from Other Sources

- Burning of the skin and eyes.
- Headache, cough, tightness and pain in the chest, shortness of breath, dizziness, lethargy, and stupor.
- Fatigue, muscle pain, chills, tremors, incoordination, seizures, and coma may be seen.
- Pulmonary edema and cardiac arrhythmias are common.
- Gastrointestinal symptoms include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea.
- Renal (kidney) damage, hepatic (liver) damage, and jaundice may also occur.
- Effects may be delayed for several hours.

Source for Symptoms: Emergency First Aid Treatment Guide, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. July 2003. (US EPA Other)

First Aid for Phosphine Poisoning

For Inhalation
- Move victims to fresh air. Emergency personnel should avoid self-exposure to phosphine.
- Evaluate vital signs including pulse and respiratory rate, and note any trauma. If no pulse is detected, provide CPR. If not breathing, provide artificial respiration. If breathing is labored, administer oxygen or other respiratory support.
- Obtain authorization and/or further instructions from the local hospital for administration of an antidote or performance of other invasive procedures.
- Transport to a health care facility.
For Skin and Eyes
- Remove victims from exposure. Emergency personnel should avoid self- exposure to phosphine.
- Evaluate vital signs including pulse and respiratory rate, and note any trauma. If no pulse is detected, provide CPR. If not breathing, provide artificial respiration. If breathing is labored, administer oxygen or other respiratory support.
- Remove contaminated clothing as soon as possible.
- If eye exposure has occurred, eyes must be flushed with lukewarm water for at least 15 minutes.
- Wash exposed skin areas twice with soap and water.
- Obtain authorization and/or further instructions from the local hospital for administration of an antidote or performance of other invasive procedures.
- Transport to a health care facility.
For Ingestion
- No information is available.

Source for First Aid: Emergency First Aid Treatment Guide, U.S. Enviromental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. July 2003. (US EPA Other)

Treatment for Phosphine Poisoning

See: Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisoning, 5th edition, U.S. EPA (EPA R&M)

 
 

Toxicity Information for Phosphine

  Note: Information for many chemicals is incomplete and may not be fully representative of effects on humans. Why?

Summary Toxicity Information

PAN Bad Actor
Chemical
1
Acute
Toxicity
2
Carcinogen Cholinesterase
Inhibitor
Ground
Water Contaminant
Developmental or
Reproductive Toxin
Endocrine
Disruptor
Not Listed Moderate Not Likely No
 
Indicates high toxicity in the given toxicological category. Indicates no available weight-of-the-evidence summary assessment. For additional information on toxicity from scientific journals or registration documents, see the "Additional Resources for Toxicity " section of the chemical detail page.
1. PAN Bad Actors are chemicals that are one or more of the following: highly acutely toxic, cholinesterase inhibitor, known/probable carcinogen, known groundwater pollutant or known reproductive or developmental toxicant. NOTE! Because there are no authoritative lists of Endocrine Disrupting (ED) chemicals, EDs are not yet considered PAN Bad Actor chemicals.
2. The acute toxicity reported on this page is of the pure chemical ingredient only and may not reflect the acute toxicity of individual pesticide products. To view acute toxicity of individual products, click on 'View Products' link in the 'Chemical Identification' section above.

Detailed Toxicity Information

Acute Toxicity 2
Phosphine
WHO Acute Hazard
TRI Acute Hazard
Material Safety Data Sheets
Acute rating from U.S. EPA product label
U.S. NTP Acute Toxicity Studies
      View Studies
Cholinesterase Inhibitor
Fumigant, not classified, b
Yes
Not Available
No Consensus Value
Moderately Toxic

No
2. The acute toxicity reported on this page is of the pure chemical ingredient only and may not reflect the acute toxicity of individual pesticide products. To view acute toxicity of individual products, click on 'View Products' link in the 'Chemical Identification' section above.
 
Cancer Information
Phosphine
IARC Carcinogens
U.S. NTP Carcinogens
California Prop 65 Known Carcinogens
U.S. EPA Carcinogens
TRI Carcinogen
Not Listed
Not Listed
Not Listed
E, Unlikely
Not Listed
 
Endocrine Disruption
Phosphine
Illinois EPA list
Keith list
Colborn list
Benbrook list
Danish Inert list
EU list
Not Listed
Not Listed
Not Listed
Not Listed
Not Listed
Not Listed
 
Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity
Phosphine
CA Prop 65 Developmental Toxin
U.S. TRI Developmental Toxin
CA Prop 65 Female Reproductive Toxin
CA Prop 65 Male Reproductive Toxin
U.S. TRI Reproductive Toxin
Not Listed
Not Listed
Not Listed
Not Listed
Not Listed
 
Chemicals of Special Concern
Phosphine
PAN Bad Actors
PAN Dirty Dozen list
Not Listed
Not Listed
 

Water Pollution Potential and Criteria for Phosphine

Water Pollution Potential

PAN Ground Water Contaminant Rating Insufficient Data
 
Physical Property Data Related to Water Contamination Potential
Water Solubility (Avg, mg/L)
Adsorption Coefficient (Koc)
Hydrolysis Half-life (Avg, Days)
Aerobic Soil Half-life (Avg, Days)
Anaerobic Soil Half-life (Avg, Days)
312.0
-
-
0.20
-
 
 

Sorry, no water quality standards or criteria have been established for this chemical by the U.S. or Canadian governments; however, there may be criteria established for related chemicals.

 

Regulatory Information for Phosphine

International Regulatory Status

 
UNEP Persistent Organic Pollutant (POP)
UNEP Prior Informed Consent Chemical (PIC)
WHO Obsolete Pesticide
Not Listed
Not Listed
Not Listed
 

U.S. and California Regulatory Status

U.S. EPA Registered
U.S. EPA Hazardous Air Pollutant
U.S. EPA Minimum Risk Pesticide (25b list)

CA Registered
CA Groundwater Contaminant
CA Toxic Air Contaminant
Yes
Yes
No

Yes
Not Listed
HAPTAC, Pesti
 

Maximum Tolerance and Residue Levels

Codex Alimentarius
   (UN FAO Maximum Residue Limits)
U.S. Maximum Tolerance Levels
European Union Maximum Residue Levels
Go to web site

Go to web site

Go to web site
 

Ecotoxicity for Phosphine

Note! Information for many chemicals is incomplete and may not be fully representative of effects on the environment. Why? Click on underlined terms for definitions and additional information.

Aquatic Ecotoxicity

All Toxic Effects for Organism Group
Organism Group Effects Noted

No effects noted for this chemical. Try related chemicals.

 
Summary of Acute Toxicity for Organism Group

Sorry, no acute aquatic ecotoxicity data available for this chemical. Try related chemicals.

 

Terrestrial Ecotoxicity

Summary of Acute Toxicity for Organism Group

Sorry, no honeybee acute toxicity data available for this chemical. Try related chemicals.

Note: Population-level effects on honeybees may occur even if a pesticide has low acute toxicity. For example, certain pesticides interfere with honeybee reproduction, ability to navigate, or temperature regulation, any of which can have an effect on long-term survival of honeybee colonies. The neonicotinoids, pyrethroids and keto-enol pesticides are some types of pesticides causing one or more of these effects.
Honeybee Chronic Toxicity

Sorry, no honeybee chronic toxicity data available for this chemical. Try related chemicals.

Related Chemicals for Phosphine

CAS Number Relation Reason Chemical Name Chem Detail Symptoms California Use Chem Use Type U.S. EPA Reg PAN Bad Actor
7803-51-2 Parent P Phosphine View View View Fumigant, Insecticide Yes Not Listed
20859-73-8 Related 1 Aluminum phosphide View View View Fumigant, Fungicide Yes Yes
1305-99-3 Related 1 Calcium phosphide (Ca3P2) View View View Rodenticide No Not Listed
12057-74-8 Related 1 Magnesium phosphide View View View Fumigant, Rodenticide Yes Not Listed
1314-84-7 Related 1 Zinc phosphide View View View Rodenticide Yes Yes
 
Working with the Information on this Page

Click on underlined terms for definitions or go to the Pesticide Tutorial overview page.

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* Data marked with an asterisk indicates that this chemical is not explicitly listed on the corresponding list. Instead, it belongs to a group of chemicals that IS designated on the list. For example, if an agency assigns a classification of reproductive toxicant to "mercury compounds", that classification is applied to all mercury compounds in the PAN Pesticide database, which are then marked with an asterisk.

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