PAN Pesticides Database - Chemicals

Paraquat ion - Identification, toxicity, use, water pollution potential, ecological toxicity and regulatory information

Note: See Working with the Information on this Page section below for important notes about this data.

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Identifying information, including synonyms, ID numbers, use type, chemical classification, a link to a list of all products containing this chemical and a list of the top crops this pesticide is used on in California.
Signs and symptoms of poisoning, first aid, and links to treatment information for this chemical.
Link to information on toxicity to humans, including carcinogenicity, reproductive and developmental toxicity, neurotoxicity, and acute toxicity.
Links to world-wide registration status as well as regulatory information for the U.S. and California.
Water quality standards and physical properties affecting water contamination potential.
Toxicity to aquatic organisms.
List of chemicals in the same family, including breakdown products, salts, esters, isomers, and other derivatives.
 

Chemical Identification and Use for Paraquat ion

Basic Identification Information About This Chemical
Chemical Name: Paraquat ion
CAS Number: 4685-14-7
U.S. EPA PC Code: 061603
CA DPR Chem Code:
Molecular Weight: 257.2
Use Type:
Chem Class:
View Related Chemicals
 
Additional Resources About This Chemical Class and Use Type
 
Other Names for this Chemical
About Chemical Synonyms
(US EPA PC Code ) , 061603 (US EPA PC Code Text ) , 1,1'-Dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium , 1,1'-Dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium cation , 1,1'-Dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium ion , 4,4'-Bipyridinium, 1,1'-dimethyl- , 4685-14-7 (CAS number) , 4685147 (CAS number without hyphens) , Methyl viologen , N,N'-Dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium , N,N'-Dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium dication , Paraquat dication , Paraquat ion , Paraquation , PP 148
 
Products Containing This Chemical
Current and historic U.S. registered products
View U.S. Products All Products Currently Registered Products
 

Signs and Symptoms of Paraquat ion Poisoning

NOTE! There may be other diseases and chemicals that have similar symptoms.

If you have a poisoning emergency in the United States call 1-800-222-1222.
If the victim has collapsed or is unconscious, call 911.

Paraquat ion is a Bipyridylium compound.

Report a Poisoning

Symptoms of Poisoning with Bipyridylium Compounds
Find Products Containing this Chemical

- Paraquat & Diquat: (Ingestion) - burning pain in the mouth, throat, chest, upper abdomen; pulmonary edema, pancreatitis, renal damage, CNS effects.
- Paraquat (dermal): dry and fissured hands, horizontal ridging or loss of fingernails, ulceration and abrasion. Diarrhea, sometimes bloody, can occur. Central Nervous System effects include giddiness, headache, fever, myalgia, lethargy and coma. Pulmonay fibrosis is the usual cause of death.
- Diquat: neurologic toxicity (nervousness, irritability, restlessness, combativeness, disorientation, nonsensical statements, inability to recognize friends or family members, diminished reflexes). Intense nausea, vomiting and diarrhea may occur.

Source for Group Symptoms: Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisoning, 5th edition, U.S. EPA, Chapter 12.

Treatment for Bipyridylium Poisoning

See: Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisoning, 5th edition, U.S. EPA, Chapter 12, page 113.

 
 

Toxicity Information for Paraquat ion

  Note: Information for many chemicals is incomplete and may not be fully representative of effects on humans. Why?

Summary Toxicity Information

PAN Bad Actor
Chemical
1
Acute
Toxicity
2
Carcinogen Cholinesterase
Inhibitor
Ground
Water Contaminant
Developmental or
Reproductive Toxin
Endocrine
Disruptor
Not Listed
No
 
Indicates high toxicity in the given toxicological category. Indicates no available weight-of-the-evidence summary assessment. For additional information on toxicity from scientific journals or registration documents, see the "Additional Resources for Toxicity " section of the chemical detail page.
1. PAN Bad Actors are chemicals that are one or more of the following: highly acutely toxic, cholinesterase inhibitor, known/probable carcinogen, known groundwater pollutant or known reproductive or developmental toxicant. NOTE! Because there are no authoritative lists of Endocrine Disrupting (ED) chemicals, EDs are not yet considered PAN Bad Actor chemicals.
2. The acute toxicity reported on this page is of the pure chemical ingredient only and may not reflect the acute toxicity of individual pesticide products. To view acute toxicity of individual products, click on 'View Products' link in the 'Chemical Identification' section above.

Detailed Toxicity Information

This Chemical
Parent Chemical 
Acute Toxicity 2
Paraquat ion Paraquat dichloride
WHO Acute Hazard
TRI Acute Hazard
Material Safety Data Sheets
Acute rating from U.S. EPA product label
U.S. NTP Acute Toxicity Studies
      View Studies
Cholinesterase Inhibitor
Not Listed
Not Listed
Not Available
No Consensus Value
No NTP Studies

No
II, Moderately Hazardous
Not Listed
Highly Toxic
No Consensus Value
Moderately to Highly Toxic

No
2. The acute toxicity reported on this page is of the pure chemical ingredient only and may not reflect the acute toxicity of individual pesticide products. To view acute toxicity of individual products, click on 'View Products' link in the 'Chemical Identification' section above.
 
Cancer Information
Paraquat ion Paraquat dichloride
IARC Carcinogens
U.S. NTP Carcinogens
California Prop 65 Known Carcinogens
U.S. EPA Carcinogens
TRI Carcinogen
Not Listed
Not Listed
Not Listed
Not Listed
Not Listed
Not Listed
Not Listed
Not Listed
E, Unlikely
Not Listed
 
Endocrine Disruption
Paraquat ion Paraquat dichloride
Illinois EPA list
Keith list
Colborn list
Benbrook list
Danish Inert list
EU list
Not Listed
Not Listed
Not Listed
Not Listed
Not Listed
Not Listed
Not listed
Not listed
Not listed
Not listed
Not listed
Yes
 
Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity
Paraquat ion Paraquat dichloride
CA Prop 65 Developmental Toxin
U.S. TRI Developmental Toxin
CA Prop 65 Female Reproductive Toxin
CA Prop 65 Male Reproductive Toxin
U.S. TRI Reproductive Toxin
Not Listed
Not Listed
Not Listed
Not Listed
Not Listed
Not Listed
Not Listed
Not Listed
Not Listed
Not Listed
 
Chemicals of Special Concern
Paraquat ion Paraquat dichloride
PAN Bad Actors
PAN Dirty Dozen list
Not Listed
Not Listed
Yes
Yes
 

Water Pollution Potential and Criteria for Paraquat ion

Water Pollution Potential

This Chemical
Parent Chemical
  Paraquat ion Paraquat dichloride
PAN Ground Water Contaminant Rating Insufficient Data Potential
 

Sorry, no water quality standards or criteria have been established for this chemical by the U.S. or Canadian governments; however, there may be criteria established for related chemicals.

 

Regulatory Information for Paraquat ion

International Regulatory Status

This Chemical
Parent Chemical 
 
UNEP Persistent Organic Pollutant (POP)
UNEP Prior Informed Consent Chemical (PIC)
WHO Obsolete Pesticide
Not Listed
Not Listed
Not Listed


Not Listed
 

U.S. and California Regulatory Status

U.S. EPA Registered
U.S. EPA Hazardous Air Pollutant
U.S. EPA Minimum Risk Pesticide (25b list)

CA Registered
CA Groundwater Contaminant
CA Toxic Air Contaminant
No
Not Listed
No

No
Not Listed
Not Listed
Yes
Not Listed
No

Yes
Not Listed
In Evaluation
 

Maximum Tolerance and Residue Levels

Codex Alimentarius
   (UN FAO Maximum Residue Limits)
U.S. Maximum Tolerance Levels
European Union Maximum Residue Levels
Go to web site

Go to web site

Go to web site
 

Ecotoxicity for Paraquat ion

Note! Information for many chemicals is incomplete and may not be fully representative of effects on the environment. Why? Click on underlined terms for definitions and additional information.

Aquatic Ecotoxicity

All Toxic Effects for Organism Group
Organism Group Effects Noted
Amphibians Behavior, Development, Feeding Behavior, Genetics, Growth, Mortality
Annelida Enzyme(s), Physiology
AquaticPlants Accumulation, Biochemistry, Development, Growth, Mortality, Physiology, Population, Reproduction
Crustaceans Avoidance, Mortality, Population
Fish Accumulation, Behavior, Biochemistry, Development, Enzyme(s), Genetics, Growth, Histology, Intoxication, Mortality, Physiology, Population
Fungi Physiology
Insects Mortality, Population
Molluscs Biochemistry, Enzyme(s), Morphology, Mortality, Population
NematodesandFlatworms Population
Phytoplankton Accumulation, Biochemistry, Cell(s), Ecosystem Process, Growth, Mortality, Physiology, Population
TerrestrialPlants Growth
Zooplankton Behavior, Intoxication, Mortality, Population
~ Un-Assigned Biochemistry, Mortality, Population
View All Aquatic Ecotoxicity Studies and References
 
Summary of Acute Toxicity for Organism Group
Organism Group Average Acute Toxicity Acute Toxicity Range
Amphibians Not Acutely Toxic Not Acutely Toxic to Moderate Toxicity
Crustaceans Moderately Toxic Slight to High Toxicity
Fish Slightly Toxic Not Acutely Toxic to Moderate Toxicity
Insects Slightly Toxic Slight Toxicity
Molluscs Slightly Toxic Slight to Moderate Toxicity
Zooplankton Slightly Toxic Slight to Moderate Toxicity
~ Un-Assigned Not Acutely Toxic Not Acutely Toxic to High Toxicity
View All Acute Summaries
 

Terrestrial Ecotoxicity

Summary of Acute Toxicity for Organism Group

Sorry, no honeybee acute toxicity data available for this chemical. Try related chemicals.

Note: Population-level effects on honeybees may occur even if a pesticide has low acute toxicity. For example, certain pesticides interfere with honeybee reproduction, ability to navigate, or temperature regulation, any of which can have an effect on long-term survival of honeybee colonies. The neonicotinoids, pyrethroids and keto-enol pesticides are some types of pesticides causing one or more of these effects.
Honeybee Chronic Toxicity

Sorry, no honeybee chronic toxicity data available for this chemical. Try related chemicals.

Related Chemicals for Paraquat ion

CAS Number Relation Reason Chemical Name Chem Detail Symptoms California Use Chem Use Type U.S. EPA Reg PAN Bad Actor
1910-42-5 Parent P Paraquat dichloride View View View Herbicide Yes Yes
69312-67-0 Related 13 Monolinuron with paraquat dichloride View View View Herbicide No Yes
2074-50-2 Related 1 Paraquat bis(methylsulfate) View View View Herbicide No Yes
27041-84-5 Related 1 Paraquat bistribromide View View View Herbicide No Yes
4685-14-7 Related P Paraquat ion View View View No Not Listed
39312-80-6 Related 13 Terraklene (simazine-paraquat mixture) View View View Herbicide No Not Listed
 
Working with the Information on this Page

Click on underlined terms for definitions or go to the Pesticide Tutorial overview page.

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* Data marked with an asterisk indicates that this chemical is not explicitly listed on the corresponding list. Instead, it belongs to a group of chemicals that IS designated on the list. For example, if an agency assigns a classification of reproductive toxicant to "mercury compounds", that classification is applied to all mercury compounds in the PAN Pesticide database, which are then marked with an asterisk.

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